Examples include freshwater lakes, salt and soda lakes, artesian springs and oases, geothermal pools, drinking water reservoirs, farm dams, rice paddies, freshwater aquafarms, wastewater storages and treatment ponds, canals, ditches and drains. 

This category corresponds to IUCN-GET biome F2 (Lakes) and F3 (Artificial wetlands).
Stocks (assets)
Flows (benefits)

Area of ecosystem asset

Units

ha

Example approach

Estimate % of total land area covered by ecosystem type, multiplied by total land area

Example methods/guidance/data sources/references

Internal records

Notes

TBD – please submit your suggestion at the feedback tab in the bottom right hand corner.

Units

ha

Example approach

Estimate extent using national/state/territory map data

Example methods/guidance/data sources/references

National/state/territory maps

Notes

TBD – please submit your suggestion at the feedback tab in the bottom right hand corner.

Units

ha

Example approach

Measure extent using remote sensing in combination with ground-truthing for detailed site mapping

Example methods/guidance/data sources/references

Producer or third party GIS

Notes

TBD – please submit your suggestion at the feedback tab in the bottom right hand corner.

Units

ML

Example approach

Estimate potential capacity of water storages within property boundaries based on own judgement

Example methods/guidance/data sources/references

Internal records

Notes

TBD – please submit your suggestion at the feedback tab in the bottom right hand corner.

Units

ML

Example approach

Estimate potential capacity using third party tools or data

Example methods/guidance/data sources/references
Notes

TBD – please submit your suggestion at the feedback tab in the bottom right hand corner.

Units

ML

Example approach

Measure potential capacity using remote sensing in combination with ground-truthing and sampling for detailed site mapping

Example methods/guidance/data sources/references

Producer or third party GIS

Notes

TBD – please submit your suggestion at the feedback tab in the bottom right hand corner.

Water quality variables

Type

Variable

Units

Various

SEEA ECT Class

Physical and chemical state

Example approach

Estimate condition using informal sampling or visual assessment

Example methods/guidance/data sources/references

Internal records

Notes

Relevant water quality variables and thresholds depend on the use of the water and known threats to water quality.

Example Tier 1/Tier 2 variables might include Turbidity, Dissolved Oxygen, Organic and inorganic compounds, Nutrients, Acidity, Salinity/Total Dissolved Solids.

See ANZECC and ARMCANZ (2000) Australian and New Zealand Guidelines for Fresh and Marine Water Quality. Volume 1: The Guidelines (Chapters 1-7). Canberra: Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council (ANZECC) and Agriculture and Resource Management Council of Australia and New Zealand (ARMCANZ).

See also: Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater.

UN Environment (2017) A Framework for Freshwater Ecosystem Management (especially Volume 2, Tables 4 and 5 which list example water quality variables for different freshwater ecosystem types).

Type

Variable

Units

Various

SEEA ECT Class

Physical and chemical state

Example approach

Estimate condition using national/state/territory map data plus informal sampling or visual assessment

Example methods/guidance/data sources/references
Notes

Relevant water quality variables and thresholds depend on the use of the water and known threats to water quality.

Example Tier 1/Tier 2 variables might include Turbidity, Dissolved Oxygen, Organic and inorganic compounds, Nutrients, Acidity, Salinity/Total Dissolved Solids.

See ANZECC and ARMCANZ (2000) Australian and New Zealand Guidelines for Fresh and Marine Water Quality. Volume 1: The Guidelines (Chapters 1-7). Canberra: Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council (ANZECC) and Agriculture and Resource Management Council of Australia and New Zealand (ARMCANZ).

See also: Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater.

UN Environment (2017) A Framework for Freshwater Ecosystem Management (especially Volume 2, Tables 4 and 5 which list example water quality variables for different freshwater ecosystem types).

Type

Variable

Units

Various

SEEA ECT Class

Physical and chemical state

Example approach

Measure condition using site-specific remote and/or in-field sensing inputs and/or lab testing

Example methods/guidance/data sources/references

Various data and testing providers

Notes

Relevant water quality variables and thresholds depend on the use of the water and known threats to water quality.

Example Tier 1/Tier 2 variables might include Turbidity, Dissolved Oxygen, Organic and inorganic compounds, Nutrients, Acidity, Salinity/Total Dissolved Solids. Tier 3 could also include additional, more difficult or costly to measure variables such as concentrations of cyanobacteria, pathogens and parasites, heavy metals and organic contaminants, where appropriate.

See ANZECC and ARMCANZ (2000) Australian and New Zealand Guidelines for Fresh and Marine Water Quality. Volume 1: The Guidelines (Chapters 1-7). Canberra: Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council (ANZECC) and Agriculture and Resource Management Council of Australia and New Zealand (ARMCANZ).

See also: Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater

UN Environment (2017) A Framework for Freshwater Ecosystem Management – (especially Volume 2, Tables 4 and 5 which list example water quality variables for different freshwater ecosystem types).

Water abstracted

Units

ML

SEEA ES sub-type

Water supply

Intermediate or final (see SEEA-EA 2021, Table 6.3)

Final (see Notes)

Example approach

Estimate using informal sampling or visual assessment

Example methods/guidance/data sources/references

Internal records

Notes

Water abstracted may be considered an ecosystem service (e.g. where ecosystems provide essential water purification services or flow regulation services); or an abiotic flow (not dependent on any particular ecological processes). Either way, the volume extracted is the relevant measure, unless water purification services and flow regulation services can be measured separately (see SEEA-EA s.6.4.2, pp. 138-139), in which case water supply should not be measured as a separate ecosystem service, but rather as an abiotic flow (water abstracted). If water abstracted can be separated into different uses (e.g. human drinking water, livestock drinking water, irrigation) then it can be helpful to measure these amounts separately.

Units

ML

SEEA ES sub-type

Water supply

Intermediate or final (see SEEA-EA 2021, Table 6.3)

Final (see Notes)

Example approach

Estimate using informal sampling or visual assessment

Example methods/guidance/data sources/references

Internal records

Notes

Water abstracted may be considered an ecosystem service (e.g. where ecosystems provide essential water purification services or flow regulation services); or an abiotic flow (not dependent on any particular ecological processes). Either way, the volume extracted is the relevant measure, unless water purification services and flow regulation services can be measured separately (see SEEA-EA s.6.4.2, pp. 138-139), in which case water supply should not be measured as a separate ecosystem service, but rather as an abiotic flow (water abstracted). If water abstracted can be separated into different uses (e.g. human drinking water, livestock drinking water, irrigation) then it can be helpful to measure these amounts separately.

Units

ML

SEEA ES sub-type

Water supply

Intermediate or final (see SEEA-EA 2021, Table 6.3)

Final (see Notes)

Example approach

Measure using flow meters

Example methods/guidance/data sources/references

Internal records

Notes

Water abstracted may be considered an ecosystem service (e.g. where ecosystems provide essential water purification services or flow regulation services); or an abiotic flow (not dependent on any particular ecological processes). Either way, the volume extracted is the relevant measure, unless water purification services and flow regulation services can be measured separately (see SEEA-EA s.6.4.2, pp. 138-139), in which case water supply should not be measured as a separate ecosystem service, but rather as an abiotic flow (water abstracted). If water abstracted can be separated into different uses (e.g. human drinking water, livestock drinking water, irrigation) then it can be helpful to measure these amounts separately.

Units

Number of people and buildings in a lower risk category

SEEA ES sub-type

River flood mitigation services

Intermediate or final (see SEEA-EA 2021, Table 6.3)

Final

Example approach

N/A

Example methods/guidance/data sources/references

N/A

Notes

Difficult to quantify. River flood mitigation services may be provided along with water flow regulation services (including baseline flow maintenance services and peak flow mitigation services).

Units

Number of people and buildings in a lower risk category

SEEA ES sub-type

River flood mitigation services

Intermediate or final (see SEEA-EA 2021, Table 6.3)

Final

Example approach

N/A

Example methods/guidance/data sources/references

N/A

Notes

Difficult to quantify. River flood mitigation services may be provided along with water flow regulation services (including baseline flow maintenance services and peak flow mitigation services).

Units

Number of people and buildings in a lower risk category

SEEA ES sub-type

River flood mitigation services

Intermediate or final (see SEEA-EA 2021, Table 6.3)

Final

Example approach

N/A

Example methods/guidance/data sources/references

N/A

Notes

Difficult to quantify. River flood mitigation services may be provided along with water flow regulation services (including baseline flow maintenance services and peak flow mitigation services).

Water abstracted – Market price less production costs

Units

$/ML

Example approach

Multiply physical flow quantity by (average market price less average production costs)

Example methods/guidance/data sources/references

Water regulators and third party information providers

Notes

Unless a clear ecosystem contribution can be identified, water supply should be treated as an abiotic flow and therefore not included in the monetary valuation of ecosystem assets, but reported separately based on the observed market price (SEEA-EA, s. 6.4.5, p.142).

Units

$/ML

Example approach

Multiply physical flow quantity by (average market price less average production costs)

Example methods/guidance/data sources/references

Water regulators and third party information providers

Notes

Unless a clear ecosystem contribution can be identified, water supply should be treated as an abiotic flow and therefore not included in the monetary valuation of ecosystem assets, but reported separately based on the observed market price (SEEA-EA, s. 6.4.5, p.142).

Units

$/ML

Example approach

Multiply physical flow quantity by (average market price less average production costs)

Example methods/guidance/data sources/references

Water regulators and third party information providers

Notes

Unless a clear ecosystem contribution can be identified, water supply should be treated as an abiotic flow and therefore not included in the monetary valuation of ecosystem assets, but reported separately based on the observed market price (SEEA-EA, s. 6.4.5, p.142).

Units

N/A

Example approach

N/A

Example methods/guidance/data sources/references

N/A

Notes

TBD – please submit your suggestion at the feedback tab in the bottom right hand corner.

Units

N/A

Example approach

N/A

Example methods/guidance/data sources/references

N/A

Notes

TBD – please submit your suggestion at the feedback tab in the bottom right hand corner.

Units

N/A

Example approach

N/A

Example methods/guidance/data sources/references

N/A

Notes

TBD – please submit your suggestion at the feedback tab in the bottom right hand corner.

Last updated: 25th July 2023